INT 13h,  02h (2)        Read Sectors into Memory                         all

Reads one or more sectors from a fixed or floppy disk into memory.

On entry:      AH         02h
AL         Number of sectors to read
CH         Cylinder number (10 bit value; upper 2 bits
in CL)
CL         Starting sector number
DH         Head number
DL         Drive number
ES:BX      Address of memory buffer

Returns:       AH         Status of operation (See Service 01h)
AL         Number of sectors read
CF         Set if error, else cleared


Reads the specified number of sectors starting at the specified
location (head, cylinder, and track) from a disk into a buffer
starting at ES:BX.

Notes:         Values in DL less than 80h specify floppy disks;
values greater than 80h specify fixed disks. For
example, 0 means the first floppy diskette, while
80h means the first fixed disk.

The cylinder number is a ten-bit quantity (0 through
1023). Its most significant two bits are in bits 7
and 6 of CL; the remaining eight bits are in CH. The
starting sector number fits in the low-order portion
(lower 6 bits) of CL.

The value returned in AL (number of sectors read)
may not give the correct number of sectors, even
though no error has occurred. Use the results of the
Carry flag and AH (status flag) to determine the
status of the operation.

The sectors read must all be on the same cylinder
and same side for diskettes, while a hard disk can
read at most 128 sectors at one time.

If an error is encountered reading a sector, use
Service 0 to reset the drive and retry the
operation. It is recommended that at least 3 retries
be attempted before an error is signalled, since the
error may have resulted from the diskette motor not
being up to speed.

Because of the architecture of the DMA channel, an
error will occur if the buffer in memory for the
sectors overlaps a 64K page boundary. A 64K page
boundary is a memory location which is one of the
following (10000h, 20000h, 30000h, etc.). Ensure
that no part of your buffer falls on such a
boundary. If it does, create a new buffer or start
the buffer just after the boundary.

If an error 11h is returned, the data is good, but
the BIOS reports that it was corrected using the ECC
error-correcting algorithm. The error may not occur
again if the information is written back out.

This service differs from the DOS INT 25h (Read
absolute sector) in that the DOS INT 25h works with
logical devices (RAM disks, Bernoulli drives, etc.).
It is much more flexible. Also INT 25h works with a
linear address, whereas this service works with 3
coordinates to address a disk location. INT 25h
doesn't have the DMA problem mentioned above, and
there is no limit on the number of sectors that can
be read in one operation. In addition, INT 25h will
do all the error-retry attempts itself. INT 25h
should be used instead of this service for obtaining
absolute sector control. Programs that may need to
use this service rather than INT 25h include
partition manipulators, system software, and disk
cache software.

For the AT, XT-286, and PC Convertible, the BIOS
executes INT 15h, Service 90h (Device Busy), for the
diskette (Type = 01h) and the fixed disk (Type =
00h) prior to waiting for the interrupt. INT 15h,
Service 91h (Interrupt Complete), is executed upon
completion. Also diskette operations that require
the diskette motor to be on will call INT 15h,
Service 90 (Device Busy), with the type equal to
"Diskette Drive Motor Start" (Type = FDh). This
allows the system to perform another task while the
drive motor is waiting to get up to speed.

See also: INT 13h, 01h
See also: INT 25h
See also: INT 13h, 0Ah
See also: INT 13h, 03h

INT 13h, 02h (2) Read Sectors into Memory all