The Enhanced Graphics Adapter is upwardly-compatible with the CGA when
accessed through the BIOS.  The EGA is far more complex at the hardware
level, but it does include emulation of many CGA registers/operations
(see CGA I/O Ports).  This topic covers the EGA changes and extensions to
CGA I/O usage.

Perhaps the most significant change for an applications programmer is that
you don't need to check for retrace when writing to the screen.  The EGA
will not allow "video snow" in any case.

  EGA #1 decodes ports 3c0H through 3dfH
  EGA #2 decodes ports 2c0H through 2dfH

The EGA can generate interrupt level 2 (IRQ 2) during the overscan at the
start of the vertical retrace.  IRQ 2 is vectored to INT 0aH.  If you use
this interrupt, be aware that the AT uses IRQ 2 as a cascade request for a
whole class of IRQs (IRQ 8-15) so the interrupt is handled at the INT 71H
vector.

Note: BIOS stores mirrors of the current CRTC port values and other EGA
information in EGA Data Areas.  To change values, you should read
the appropriate variable, set the bit, perform the OUT, and store
the new value in the variable.

Port  Description
                                                                            
3c0H  Write: Attribute Controller (ATC) address and data port
Perform  IN al,3daH      ;(or IN 3baH) to force address mode
OUT 3c0H,reg_no ;select ATC register (go to data mode)
OUT 3c0H,value  ;store a value in an ATC register
Note: bits 0-4: select an ATC register
bit 5: 1=enable display; 0=set register

After selecting a reg, perform another OUT 3c0H,data as below:

ATC Reg Data description
                                                                 
00-0fH  palette registers: select colors for this attribute
 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 
     r g b R G B            Note: R,G,B are 2/3-intensity
                  bit             r,g,b are 1/3-intensity
              0: Red
              1: Green
              2: Blue
              3: blue'  (also MDA-emulation undrln)
              4: green' (also CGA-emul. intensity)
              5: red'
10H    mode control
 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 
                 
                  bit
          0: 1=graphics modes, 0=text
          1: 1=MDA attributes, 0=color attribs
          2: 1=9th dot=8th dot for line/box chrs
             0=use bkgd color as 9th dot of char
          3: 1=enable blink, 0=allow 4-bit bkgd
11H   select overscan (border) clr.  Same rgbRGB as palette regs
12H   enable color planes
 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 
                 
                  bit
              0-3: bits enable color planes 0-3
             4-5: video status to multiplex
00=R&B, 01=b&G, 10=r&g, 11=unused
13H   horizontal pixel panning
Number of dots to shift data left.  Bits 0-3 valid (0-0fH)
                                                                            
3c2H  Write: miscellaneous control functions
 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 
                 
                  bit
                  0: 1=select 3BxH (emulate MDA); 0=select 3DxH (CGA)
                  1: 1=enable RAM; 0=disable RAM
                  2-3: Dot clock: 00=14mHz; 01=16mHz; 10=external
                  4: 1=select feature output; 0=select internal
                  5: Page bit for odd/even mode
                  6: Horizontal retrace polarity: 1=negative, 0=pos
                  7: Vertical retrace polarity: 1=neg, 0=positive
                                                                            
3c4H  Write: sequencer address register
3c5H  Write: sequencer data register
Perform OUT 3c4H,reg_no; then OUT 3c5H,data

Seq Reg Data description
                                                                 
00    sequencer reset.
Bits 0-1 indicate asynchronous/synchronous reset.
01    clocking mode
 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 
                 
                  bit
          0: 1=8 dots per char; 0=9 dots/char
          1: CRT bandwidth: 1=low; 0=high
          2: 1=shift every char; 0=every 2nd chr
          3: dot clock: 1=halved; 0=normal
02   map mask: bits 0-3 enable writes to bit planes 0-3
03   character map select:
bits 0-1 select Map B (for when attribute bit 3=0)
bits 2-3 select Map A (for when attribute bit 3=1)
04   memory mode
 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 
                 
                  bit
        0: 1=text char generator; 0=graphics
        1: 1=EGA ram > 64K; 0=64K
        2: 1=sequential; 0=odd/even (like CGA)
                                                                            
3caH  Write: graphics 2 position (must be 0 for EGA)
                                                                            
3ccH  Write: graphics 1 position (must be 1 for EGA)
                                                                            
3ceH  Write: graphics 1 and 2 address register
3cfH  Write: graphics controller data register
Perform OUT 3ceH,reg_no; then OUT 3cfH,data

GDC Reg Data description
                                                                 
00   set/reset. bits 0-3 select planes for write mode 00
01   enable set/reset
02   color compare.  Bits 0-3 select color for read mode 01
03   data rotate and function select for write mode 00
bits 0-2: set rotate count for write mode 00
3-4: fn select for write modes 00 and 02
00=no change; 01=AND; 10=OR; 11=XOR
04   read map select.  Bits 0-2 select map # for read mode 00.
05   mode register
 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 
                 
                  bit
              0-1: Write mode 0-2
              2: test condition
              3: read mode: 1=color cmpare, 0=direct
              4: 1=use odd/even RAM addressing
              5: 1=use CGA mid-res map (2-bits/pix)
06   miscellaneous graphics control
 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 
                 
                  bit
          0: 1=graphics; 0=enable char gen (txt)
         1: 1=chain odd maps after even maps
         2: memory mapping for CPU
00=a000H(128K)
01=a000H (64K)
10=b000H(32K MDA)
11=b800H (32K CGA)
07   color masking disable
bits 0-3 disable planes from compare in read mode 01
08   bit mask.  Bits 0-7 select bits to mask in all planes
                                                                            
3d4H or 3b4H  CRT controller address
                                                                            
3d5H or 3b5H  CRT controller internal registers
Note: Port 3c0H bit 0 selects which port address-pair to use.
(3bxH is normal for MDA; 3dxH is normal for CGA).
Perform OUT 3x4H,reg_no; then OUT 3x5H,data

CRTC Rg Data description
                                                                 
and CGA I/O Ports.  Exceptions:
02H    start horizontal blanking (character count)
03H    end horizontal blanking
bits 0-4 are blank width; bits 5-6 are skew enable
04H    start horizontal retrace (character position)
05H    end horizontal retrace
 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 
                 
                  bit
                  0-4: horizontal retrace width
                  5-6: retrace delay 0-3 char-clocks
                  7: 1=start panning on odd addr; 0=even
06H     vertical total (scan lines)
07H    bit 8 for certain CRTC registers
 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 
                 
                  bit
              0: vertical total       (CRTC Reg 06)
              1: vert disp'd enable end  (CRTC 12H)
              2: vertical retrace start  (CRTC 10H)
              3: start vert blanking (CRTC Reg 15H)
              4: line compare        (CRTC Reg 18H)
              5: cursor location     (CRTC Reg 0aH)
08H    preset row scan first scan line after vertical retrace
10H    Write: vertical retrace start
11H    Write: vertical retrace end
 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 
                 
                  bit
              0-3: retrace width in scan lines
              4: 0=clear vertical interrupt
              5: 0=enable vertical interrupt IRQ2
12H    vertical displayed end (scan line)
13H    vertical displayed adjustment
14H    underline location.  Bits 0-5 are scan line number.
15H    start vertical blanking (scan line)
16H    end vertical blanking
17H    mode control
 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 
                 
                  bit
                  0: 0=CGA graphics addr compatible mode
                  1: select row scan counter
                  2: horiz retrace: 1=double vert. res.
                  3: 1=use char clock/2 for word refresh
                  4: 1=force high impedance on output
                  5: address wrapping mode
                  6: 1=byte addressing mode; 0=word mode
                  7: 0=hardware reset; 1=normal ops
18H    line compare (scan line) Used in split screen operations
                                                                            
3daH or 3baH  Write: bits 0-1 control Feature Control outputs FC0 and FC1
Note: Port 3c0H bit 0 selects which port address to use.

Read:  status bits are same as MDA (port 3baH) or CGA (port 3daH)
 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 
                 
                  bit
          0: retrace.  1=display is in vert or horiz retrace.
          1: 1=light pen is triggered; 0=armed
          2: 1=light pen switch is open; 0=closed
          3: 1=vertical sync pulse is occurring.
Note:  With EGA, you don't need to synchronize with retrace
when writing to video RAM.
                                                                            
3ddH or 3bbH  Write: light pen latch reset.  Any OUT clears the latch.
                                                                            
3dcH or 3bcH  Write: light pen latch set.  Any OUT arms the latch.
                                                                            
See Also: VGA I/O Ports
INT 10H (BIOS video services)
- -

Enhanced Graphics Adapter I/O Ports